Neoclassicism was an artistic movement that emerged in the late 18th century and became popular throughout much of Europe in the early 19th century. It is often seen as a reaction against the excesses of Rococo styles and Baroque forms, seeking to recapture the simplicity, grandeur, and purity of Classical art and architecture. The movement emphasized the ideals of order, clarity, and restraint.

Many Neoclassical works featured Roman, Greek, or Egyptian themes and used forms such as columns, pediments and arches to create a sense of symmetry and balance. Key artists associated with the movement include Jacques-Louis David, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres and Antonio Canova.

The Neoclassical movement grew out of the Age of Enlightenment and was closely linked to a number of political, social, and intellectual developments during this period, including the growth of nationalism and democratic movements in Europe, as well as the rise of Romanticism and anti-monarchist sentiment.

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